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Adult Education Initiatives in India 

The programme of adult literacy did not rake much headway. The literacy rate in India, therefore, increased only from 18.37 per cent in 1951 to 24.02 per cent in 1961.

N A T I  O N A L   L I T E R A C Y   M I S S I O N   ( N L M )

The National Literacy Mission came into being on 5th May, 1988 to impart seriousness to adult education. Literacy in India has made remarkable strides since Independence and according to the provisional results of the Census 2001. The literacy rate of India has increased from 18.33% in 1951 to 65.38% in 2001. Subsequently National Literacy Mission received international recognition when it was awarded the UNESCO's NOMA Literacy Prize for 1999.

 

NLM OBJECTIVES: Seeks to impart functional literacy to all non-literate persons in 15-35 age group.
In qualitative terms, functional literacy implies:

  • Self-reliance in 3 R's
  • Participation in the development process.
  • Skill improvement to improve economic status and general well being.
  • Imbibing values of national integration, conservation of environment, women's equality and observance of small family norms etc.

The NLM seeks to achieve these objectives through the following:

  • by creating an environment conducive to teaching- learning process, provision of good and relevant teaching-learning materials and facilitating teaching-learning by good training, media and communication;
  • by improving the pace of learning and injecting confidence among the learners about their potential to learn and by ensuring that the process is not drudgery;
  • by integrating basic literacy with post-literacy and continuing education; and
  • by developing the quality of human resources at all levels of functionaries through orientation and training.

 World Literacy at a Glance:

 (in million)

 

Total

Male

Female

Population *(2000)

6091.3

3068.9

3022.4

Literacy Rate**(15+)

876.0

313.0

563.0

Non Literates**(15+) (%)

79.4

85.3

73.6

Source: *  Labour Statistics, ILO - 2000
  ** Unesco 1999 Statistical Year Book
   (Estimated literacy rates for the year 2000)

LITERACY STATUS IN SOME ASIAN COUNTRIES

South Asian Countries

Country

Total Non-Literate 
Population 15+age 
(in million)

Literacy Rate 15+ (%)(2000)

Total Male Female
Maldives -- 96.3 96.3 96.4
Sri Lanka -- 1.17 91.6 94.5
India* NA 58.5 72.3 44.4
Bhutan 0.64 47.3 61.1 33.6
Pakistan 51.67 43.3 57.6 27.8
Nepal 8.27 41.4 59.1 23.8
Bangladesh 49.62 40.08 51.7 29.5

Other Asian Countries

Country Total Non-literate 
Population 15+ age 
(in millions)

Literacy Rate 15+ (%)
(2000)

Total Male Female
South Korea

0.84

97.8 99.2 96.4
Thailand

2.04

95.6 97.2 94.0
Philippines

2.25

95.4 95.5 95.2
Vietnam

3.61

93.3 95.7 91.0
Malaysia

1.83

87.5 91.5 83.6
Indonesia

19.24

87.0 91.9 82.1
China

144.46

85.0 92.3 77.4
Myanmar

4.98

84.7 89.0 80.6
Iran

10.00

76.9 83.7 70.0
Laos

1.15

61.8 73.6 50.5
Afghanistan

8.14

36.3 51.0 20.8

Source: UNESCO 1999 Statistical Year Book (Estimates literacy rates for the year 2000)


LITERACY STATUS IN NINE MOST POPULOUS COUNTRIES

Country

Total Non-literate 
Population 15+ age

  Literacy Rate 15+ (%)

Total Male Female
Mexico 5.96 91.0 93.1 89.1
Indonesia 19.24 87.0 91.9 82.1
Brazil 17.91 85.3 85.1 85.4
China 144.96 85.0 92.3 77.4
Nigeria 22.80 64.1 72.3 56.2
India* NA 58.5 72.3 44.4
Egypt 19.83 55.3 66.6 43.7
Pakistan 51.67 43.3 57.6 27.8
Bangladesh 49.62 40.8 51.7 9.5

* Figures for India are estimated literacy rates on the basis of National Family 
  Health Survey 1998-99 published in November, 2000

Source: Unesco 1999 Statistical year Book (Estimated literacy rates for the year 2000) 

Literacy Scenario as per 2001 Census
The Literacy rate in the country had increased from 18.33% in 1951 to 65.38% in 2001.Thus in five decades, the literacy percentage had grown by 47.05% or by an average of 9.41% per decade. According to the 2001 Census, male literacy was 75.85% and female literacy 54.16%.

Literacy rate as per State/UTs 

On the basis of literacy rate, State/UTs can be grouped as under:

  • High Literacy Rate (80% and above) Kerala (90.92%), Mizoram (88.49%), Lakshadweep (87.52%), Goa (82.32%), Delhi (81.82%), Chandigarh (81.76%), Pondicherry (81.49%), A & N Islands (81.18%) and Daman & Diu (81.09%). 

  • Literacy Rate above national average (65.4%)_ and below 80% - Maharashtra (77.27%), Himachal Pradesh (77.13%), Tripura (73.66%), Tamil Nadu (73.47), Uttaranchal (72.28%), Gujarat (69.97%), Punjab (69.75%), Sikkim (69.68%), West Bengal (69.22%), Manipur (68.87%), Haryana (68.59%), Nagaland (67.11%) and Karnataka (67.04%).

  •  Literacy Rate below national average (65.4%) Chhattisgarh(65.18%), Assam (64.28%), Madhya Pradesh (64.11%), Orissa (63.61%), Meghalaya (63.31%), Andhra Pradesh (61.11%), Rajasthan (61.03%), Dadra & Nagar Haveli (60.03%), Uttar Pradesh (57.36%), Arunachal Pradesh (54.74%), Jammu & Kashmir (54.46%), Jharkhand (54.13%) and Bihar (47.53%).

Rural-Urban Gap (Literates) - Census 2001

(In million)

 

Persons

Male

Female

All Areas

566.71

(65.20%)

339.91

(75.64%)

226.79

(54.03%)

Rural Areas

366.67

(59.21%)

226.27

(71.18%)

140.39

(46.58%)

Urban Areas

200.03

(80.06%)

113.63

(86.42%)

86.39

(72.99%)

Revised Parameters of the NGO's and State Resource Centres

ITEMS EARLIER PARAMETERS PRESENT PARAMETERS
Name Scheme of Assistance to VAs NGOs in the feild of education
Classification Three categories(A,B & C) Two categories(A&B)
Financial pattern Annual maintenance Category A-Rs.30 lakh per annum

Category B-Rs.25 lakh per annum

Category C-Rs.10 lakh per annum
Category A-Rs.60 lakh per annum

Category B-Rs.40 lakh per annum
One-time grant Not existing Category A-Rs.50 lakh

Category B-Rs.40 lakh
Opening of State Resource Centers As and when required 1999-2000 3
2000-2001 3
2001-2002 4
Sanctioning of VA Projects Proposel considered by central grant-in-aid committee Proposals of regional/local NGOs to be considered by respective SLMAs.

Source: http://www.education.nic.in

 

 

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